More about AWS Costs
- AWS RDS Pricing Explained
- AWS Cost Management: 9 Free Tools to Help Cut Your Costs
- AWS Costs: 3 Ways to Save Big and 10 Price Variations to Watch Out For
- AWS Data Transfer Costs: Hidden Network Transfer Costs and What to Do About Them
- AWS Storage Costs: All in One Place
- AWS Cost Optimization: Concepts, Tools and Best Practices
- AWS Cost Saving Guidebook Shows How You Can Optimize EBS Costs
- AWS EBS Snapshot Pricing Vs. Azure & Cloud Volumes ONTAP
- Find and Optimize Your AWS Storage Costs for AWS EBS and More
- Control EBS Costs: How to Find and Delete Unused AWS EBS Volumes Using a Lambda Function
Organizations are moving more applications and services to Infrastructure as a Service, Platform as a Service, and Software as a Service models. A sizable part of IT budgets are diverted to cloud providers, and understanding your cloud bill and budget on cloud providers like Amazon Web Services is becoming a prime concern. AWS cost optimization has become a discipline of its own with specialized tools, economic models and best practices.
In this article, you will learn:
- Four AWS Pricing Models: Which One is Right for You?
- Avoiding Surprises in Your Monthly Cloud Bill: 10 Price Variations to Watch Out For
- AWS Cost Optimization: Best Practices for Managing Usage on AWS
- AWS Cost Reduction with Cloud Volumes ONTAP
Four AWS Pricing Models: Which One is Right for You?
Beyond the basic pay-per-use pricing model, AWS offers three more pricing models that let you give us some flexibility in exchange for significant discounts.
1. On-demand pricing
The basic AWS pricing model is on-demand, with pricing for services based on actual usage, billed per hour or per second (supported for some services). It is highly flexible, but also the most expensive option. Many organizations start with on-demand pricing to understand their cloud needs and later switch to another model.
- Suitable for organizations that prefer to structure their expenses as Operating Expenses (OpEx) with no up-front payments or time commitment.
- Suitable for applications that are mission critical or have unpredictable spikes in load.
2. On-demand pricing with Enterprise Discount Program (EDP)
Organizations using on-demand pricing in the long term, should consider applying for an Amazon EDP. An EDP requires you to buy enterprise support and commit to a certain level of spend for a specified period of time. For example, a commitment to spend of $5 million per month may result in a discount of up to 13%. However, you can and should negotiate to receive deeper discounts. You can improve your leverage in the negotiation by, for example, pre-planning and optimizing workloads, and consolidating accounts to show bigger spend.
- Suitable for organizations that have sizable infrastructure requirements and a large budget to spend on the cloud.
- Suitable for applications that are large, with stable, predictable demand in the long term (at least when combined with other applications in the same portfolio).
3. Reserved instances
Amazon lets you reserve instances for a period of 1-3 years and receive discounts of up to 75%. In a reserved instance model, if you need to scale down, you cannot get rid of the reserved instances. Scaling up will require consuming resources on-demand at a higher cost. This reduces the flexibility of the Amazon offering, although you can still benefit from the advanced automation options and rich ecosystem of services Amazon provides.
- Suitable for organizations that are primarily running existing or legacy enterprise applications on the cloud.
- Suitable for applications that have predictable usage which can be planned a long time in advance, or have a predictable growth trend.
4. Spot instances
Spot instances are only available for Amazon EC2. They offer the deepest discounts available on Amazon, up to 90% from on-demand instance pricing. Spot instances allow you to bid for spare computing capacity on Amazon’s open market. Pricing may change every five minutes, and if your price bid is above the current market price, you receive the spot instance. The Amazon EC2 Spot service can interrupt your instance if capacity is not available, or the current spot price exceeds your maximum price.
- Suitable for organizations that have advanced cloud-native development capabilities, with the ability to dynamically cluster, start, stop and migrate applications.
- Suitable for applications that are stateless and either highly distributed, or run non-time-critical workloads, for example overnight batch processing of analytics data.
Avoiding Surprises in Your Monthly Cloud Bill: 10 Price Variations to Watch Out For
Although there are many tools for estimating your AWS costs, such as official pricing calculator, there may be considerable variation in your actual cloud spend. Below are 13 reasons you may see something different on your Amazon bill compared to your original estimates.
- Actual usage—unless you place strict limits on your cloud utilization, actual usage may differ from the usage you estimated.
- Different services—in real-life deployments, teams often need to use other or additional AWS services than they originally planned, which may add costs.
- Data transfer and throughput costs—it is sometimes difficult to predict how much data your application will transfer, and some Amazon services charge for data transfer or throughput, measured in Input/Output Operations per Second (IOPS).
- Region—Amazon services are priced differently in each global region. If you end up running services in a different region than the one you estimated, prices will vary.
- Price changes—Amazon constantly updates prices, so if you use services on-demand, there may be unpredictable price movements compared to your estimate.
- Taxes—most Amazon calculators do not take into account sales taxes or other government charges related to your Amazon service.
- Free tier and promotions—in many cases, part of your initial utilization will use the Amazon free tier, or may be eligible for other discounts, which can reduce your actual costs.
- Tiered pricing— some Amazon calculators do not take tiers into account—for example it does not quantify the amount of storage on S3 you choose to move to Amazon Glacier. Check out NetApp’s storage-focused AWS calculator which actually does calculate AWS storage costs according to your use of storage tiers.
- Third-party licensing fees—if you purchase software or services on the AWS Marketplace, or directly install commercial software on your instances, these additional license costs may not be reflected in your estimate.
- Currency—most calculators show prices in US Dollars, but your actual price may vary depending on your local currency and the current exchange rate.
AWS Cost Optimization: Best Practices for Managing Usage on AWS
Identify Amazon EC2 Instances With Low Utilization
AWS Cost Explorer provides the Resource Optimization report, which shows idle or underutilized EC2 instances. You can reduce costs by stopping these instances or switching them to a smaller instance size. Another option is to automatically stop underutilized instances using the AWS Instance Scheduler, or automate scheduling of instances using AWS Operations Conductor.
The AWS Compute Optimizer provides additional recommendations for EC2 instances. For example, it can suggest how to downsize instances across instance families, or switch to more powerful instances to avoid performance bottlenecks. It can also provide recommendations for efficient use of Auto Scaling groups.
Use or Sell Underutilized Reserved Instances
Reserved Instances can significantly reduce costs on Amazon, but only if you actually use them. If you have idle reservations, it is important to make use of them to avoid losing your investment.
When you discover an unused or underused reserved instance, you can use them for a new application, or an existing application running on more expensive on-demand instances. Otherwise, you can sell your RIs in the Reserved Instance Marketplace.
Use Amazon EC2 Spot Instances to Reduce EC2 Costs
If your workload is fault-tolerant, using Spot Instances can reduce costs by up to 90%. The main caveat is that spot instances can be interrupted at two minutes’ notice. Examples of typical workloads include big data, containerized workloads, CI/CD, web servers, and development/testing.
Amazon provides the Spot Fleet feature, which lets you run both on-demand and spot instances in the same Auto Scaling group, letting you reserve some on-demand instances which cannot be interrupted, for critical components.
AWS Cost Reduction with Cloud Volumes ONTAP
NetApp Cloud Volumes ONTAP, the leading enterprise-grade storage management solution can do even more to help reduce your overall AWS spending through its powerful storage efficiency technologies, space-efficient snapshots, and zero-cost data cloning. With the thin provisioning, data compression, and deduplication storage efficiencies, companies can reduce storage footprint and costs on AWS by 70% and more.
Read More About AWS Costs
AWS cost optimization is a broad topic. Different Amazon services have different pricing models and cost optimization techniques. Read the articles below to gain a deeper understanding of Amazon cost management strategies, with a special focus on storage services and opportunities for optimizing storage costs.
AWS Storage Costs
Amazon provides several popular cloud storage services: Elastic Block Store (EBS), Elastic File System (EFS), Simple Storage Service (S3), S3 Glacier, and more, each with its own pricing model and unique pricing parameters.
Understand storage costs across each of the primary storage services, and see Amazon storage pricing all in one place, with examples covering the most common scenarios.
Read more: AWS Storage Costs: All in One Place
Controlling EBS Costs
Amazon EBS provides persistent storage for Amazon EC2 instances. However, when you shut down an EC2 instances, the EBS storage volume may be not automatically deleted. This can lead to major cost overages, for example in case you deploy auto scaling and automatically create largen numbers of EC2 instances, but forget to erase their attached EBS volumes when they are no longer needed.
Learn how to find unused EBS volumes and automatically delete them using an AWS Lambda function, to control EBS costs and avoid waste.
AWS Cost Saving Guidebook
Learn how to save EBS costs with Cloud Volumes ONTAP, using advanced storage features like deduplication, compression, compaction, thin provisioning, automatic data tiering, NetApp Snapshot™ Copies technology, and smart data clones.
Learn how storage efficiencies can generate major cost savings, and download our complete guidebook to learn how to save more on Amazon EBS.
AWS Data Transfer Costs: Hidden Network Transfer Costs and What to Do About Them
AWS and the public cloud in general are based on the premise that cloud-based deployment will be less expensive than operating your own in-house IT. But users frequently open up their monthly cloud bills expecting savings only to find unexpected AWS data transfer costs that seem to have cropped up from nowhere. Where did these hidden network transfer costs come from and what can you do about them?
This article takes a look at the different types of transfers that can be driving up your AWS bill, and gives you some AWS cost optimization tips on how to control AWS data transfer costs, including the use of cost- and space-efficient transfers with NetApp Cloud Volumes ONTAP for AWS.
AWS Cost Optimization: Concepts, Tools and Best Practices
Amazon Web Services provides a huge variety of services. Predicting and managing AWS costs for large deployments can sometimes be overwhelming.
Learn how AWS cost optimization works, free Amazon tools that can help manage costs, and best practices for reducing your cloud bill.
Cloud Snapshot Costs: AWS Snapshots, Azure Snapshots, and Cloud Volumes ONTAP
Snapshots are an important part of keeping data protected no matter which cloud you’re using. But if you’re not aware of the costs involved both in the creation of snapshots and for storing them, you might wind up straining your cloud budget, especially when there are demands for consistency, which requires constant backing up.
This post deals with managing the costs of the native snapshots capabilities that are available for Amazon EBS and for Azure storage. You’ll see examples of how the snapshots are created and the pricing formulas on each service. Plus, you’ll see how NetApp Snapshots with Cloud Volumes ONTAP Cloud give a cost-saving third option for snapshot protection that works in any cloud.
Find and Optimize Your AWS Storage Costs for AWS EBS and More
Fine tuning your AWS storage resources can be a big help when trying to reduce your AWS costs. But there is a careful balance that has to be kept in order to make sure you’re still meeting the storage capacity and performance demands of your applications without overpaying for them.
This article will give you a basic primer on the costs of specific AWS storage types and some helpful tips on how to optimize your costs through the use of some of the native tagging, monitoring, and altering services on the platform.
AWS Cost Management: 9 Free Tools to Help Cut Your Costs
Amazon Web Services (AWS) provides a range of free tools for optimization and cost management. Discover a range of free Amazon cost management tools that can help you visualize, analyze, and cut cloud costs in the AWS cloud.
AWS RDS Pricing Explained
Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) provides a fully-managed database that includes security and high availability. Learn about key components of RDS pricing, including the free tier, pricing per database engine, database storage, provisioned IOPs, and more.
Read more: AWS RDS Pricing Explained
See Our Additional Guides on Key IaaS Topics
We have authored in-depth guides on several other topics that can also be useful as you explore the world of IaaS.
Learn about cloud migration and what major challenges to expect when implementing a cloud migration strategy in your organization.
See top articles in our cloud migration strategy guide:
- Cloud Migration Tools: Transferring Your Data with Ease
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Learn about Amazon’s basic framework for migration, and how to plan for common challenges that affect almost every migration project.
See top articles in our AWS migration guide:
- 5 Steps to the Cloud: AWS Migration Checklist
- AWS Case Studies with NetApp Cloud Volumes ONTAP
- AWS Database Migration Service: Copy-Paste Your Database to Amazon
Learn what is AWS EBS and how to perform common EBS operations. Including five highly useful EBS features that can help you optimize performance and billing.
See top articles in our guide to AWS EBS:
Learn about AWS EFS, your backup options, how to optimize performance, see a brief comparison of EFS vs EBS vs S3, and discover how Cloud Volumes ONTAP can help.
See top articles in our guide to AWS EFS:
Learn about aspects of considerations when implementing Azure migration: migration models, state assessment, storage configuration, security, and maintenance.
See top articles in our Azure migration guide:
Azure Cost Management
Learn about tools and practices that can help you manage and optimize costs on the Microsoft Azure cloud
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Azure High Availability
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This guide explains what high availability is and how to optimize Azure high availability.
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